Setting up a gateway on Cisco Routers

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Option 1: Secondary IP on WAN interface

To create a gateway using Cisco equipment you must have a Cisco Router (preferred from series 2600 and above)

Preferred with two Ethernet ports (but can be done also with one Ethernet port)

Pre requirement to the setup to work are as follows:

You have already registered with AMPRNet and got your or allocation and it is showing in the encap.txt file (see "If you are looking to get an IP allocation within the AMPRNet please read the Portal page.") info on the main page .

You have registered some hosts of your allocated network in the AMPRNet DNS like <your call sign>

The example given here here is of one Ethernet port.

You have to assign the router Ethernet port the Commercial IP

The commands are:

configure terminal
interface ethernet0
ip address <and here you give the ip of the commercial isp the router is connected to> (it can also be the IP of a network the router is on  (as long as this IP is accessible to the outside world))> <The NetMask of the network>

The interface name can vary depending on your router type, it can be Ethernet0 FastEthernet0 GigabitEthernet0/0 etc.

(To see what interfaces you have in order to assign them the address use the command Show interface and identify the Ethernet port name.)

Then you have to assign the AMPRNet or IP.

For a router with one port any additional network IP has to be secondary and the command is:

int eth0
ip add <the AMPR IP > <the netmask of the network > secondary

Now some tunneling commands have to be added to redirect your outgoing traffic (via tunnel) to the main AMPRNET router , you do it because every ISP block outgoing IP's which is not a part of their network (and 44 net is not belong to any ISP) so in order to allow the 44 net IP traffic to gain access to the outside world you need to do a tunnel to the AMPR.ORG router to the outgoing traffic (traffic that intend to reach the internet (all other IP's that are not part of the AMPRNet))

To open a tunnel channel you have to specify the tunnel source address (from where the tunnel is established) and tunnel destination (to where the tunnel establish to)

This is done by a few commands here they are

interface tunnel0
tunnel source <here you put the router commercial IP>
tunnel destination <here you put  the AMPR.ORG main tunnel router IP>
tunnel mode ipip (this command is to tell the tunnel (cisco support lot of tunneling types) which  mode to use)

In addition the router has to be notified to pass all the outgoing 44 Net Traffic to the tunnel interface and not to route it just like that to the Internet (because as explained they will be probably blocked by the closest ISP you are connected to )

The command to do it is

ip route Tunnel0 <the ip address of the AMPR.ORG main tunnel router >

( mean "any IP") (will be explained latter)

Another important command is a command to route the tunneled traffic from the router to the main router not via a tunnel (this important to establish tunnel)

This command is more specific then the "any IP" route command described before and say to the router : "pass the tunneled traffic belong to the other side of the tunnel direct and not via tunnel"

The Command is :

ip route <the main tunnel IP > Ethernet0 <your  router commercial IP>

This are the minimum commands necessary to be able to route your inside 44 net IP to the outside world (but not to any other 44 net networks worldwide)

This method will redirect any outgoing traffic (no matter what local IP is used ) to the tunnel and since the AMPR.ORG tunnel deal with tunneling from only 44 Net IP it mean that if the router local Lan is sharing 44 and non 44 IP machines the non 44 Net machines will have no connectivity to the world

To overcome this problem a route policy will have to be used (with the command route-map) because regular route command deal with route for destination IP without looking at the source (local net) and route policy can do it ...

So two policy have to be created one for all addresses (excluding the AMPRnet that needed to be routed direct to the internet (without tunnel) and second one specifically for the 44 net hosts that needed to redirect their outgoing traffic to the tunnels

Option 2: VLAN and zone-based firewall

If you're familiar with zone-based policy firewalls in IOS, it's possible to combine that feature with VTI and policy-based routing in a way that doesn't require multiple route-maps and won't impact non-44net traffic on the router.

! Define security zones for the tunnel interface and 44net vlan
zone security AMPRNet
zone security AMPRAlloc
! An ACL for source traffic on the 44net vlan
ip access-list standard Vlan44
 permit <your_44net_allocation> <your_allocation_mask>
 deny   any log
! Send all traffic coming from the 44net vlan through the tunnel.
route-map ampr-tunnel permit 10
 set interface Tunnel44
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0.44
 description AMPRNet allocation
 encapsulation dot1Q 44
 ip address <your_44net_allocation> <your_subnet_mask>
 zone-member security AMPRAlloc
 ip policy route-map ampr-tunnel
interface Tunnel44
 description AMPRNet
 ip unnumbered GigabitEthernet0/0/0.44
 zone-member security AMPRNet
 tunnel source GigabitEthernet0/0/1
 tunnel mode ipip
 tunnel destination
! Now we get into the zone-based firewall configuration
! Access lists for class-maps
ip access-list extended Ping
 permit icmp any any echo
ip access-list extended Traceroute
 permit icmp any any time-exceeded
 permit icmp any any unreachable
! Classify traffic for the zone-based firewall
class-map type inspect match-all Traceroute
 match access-group name Traceroute
 match protocol icmp
class-map type inspect match-all Ping
 match protocol icmp
 match access-group name Ping
class-map type inspect match-any Generic
 match protocol tcp
 match protocol udp
 match protocol icmp
! Define policies for the classes above.
! Here we will only allow ping and traceroute in, and have no restrictions on outbound traffic.
! Customize to your needs, of course.
policy-map type inspect AMPRNetIn
 class type inspect Traceroute
 class type inspect Ping
 class class-default
policy-map type inspect AllowAllOut
 class type inspect Generic
 class class-default
! Apply policy-maps to traffic flows between zones.
zone-pair security AMPRNet_to_AMPRAlloc source AMPRNet destination AMPRAlloc
 service-policy type inspect AMPRNetIn
zone-pair security AMPRAlloc_to_AMPRNet source AMPRAlloc destination AMPRNet
 service-policy type inspect AllowAllOut

Routing to other 44net gateways

In order to route your traffic to other 44 net gateways you need to build a tunnel interface to every gateway (unlike JNOS that one tunnel deal with all tunnels) and the tunnel have to have a tunnel source tunnel destination (as explained above ) and tunnel mode

In addition two route lines have to be added

One is route command to route the specific 44 network of the gateway this tunnel deal into this tunnel

And another is to allow the tunnel traffic to go thorough the internet

Enclosed is example from router that is doing tunnel to the main AMPR router and to one gateway somewhere in the world

The tunnel0 interface is the Main AMPR.ORG router and the tunnel with 741916672 is one tunnel to a gateway

The section of tunnel74xxx have to duplicated to every 44 net gateway (of course with the corresponding ip of the specific gateway) (currently about 400 times)

TIP: If you are not familiar with Cisco Commands you can use the GUI Software called Cisco Configuration Professional (CCP)

to config the router with it

Later on we will deal of how to create these tunnels lines configuration using a script that takes the info from the ENCAP.TXT file and convert it to Cisco config

interface Tunnel0
ip unnumbered Ethernet0
no ip directed-broadcast
tunnel source Ethernet0
tunnel destination
tunnel mode ipip
interface Tunnel741916672
description Link to
ip unnumbered Ethernet0
ip access-group acl_44 in
no ip directed-broadcast
tunnel source
tunnel destination
tunnel mode ipip

interface Ethernet0
description connected to EthernetLAN_HAIFA
ip address secondary
ip address
no ip directed-broadcast

ip classless
ip route Tunnel0
ip route Ethernet0
ip route Tunnel741916672
ip route Ethernet0

Making the route commands automatically

Because the route info of the gateways (the encap file) changes periodically mainly because a lot of gateway sits on dynamic ip

and because the tunnel ip as a result change you may loose the tunnel to these gateways

In order to be "updated" it is needed to take the new encap file periodically and put it into the cisco router

Because the encap file lines are not a format of commands that Cisco "understand" a fomat conversion need to be made in order to convert route info in the encap file to commands that cisco can "understand"

So a Script that take the encap file and make a new file of Cisco commands must be run

There are two scripts that do it available , one is Perl and other is VBS

The example will give the results of the Perl Script

The Perl Script for the Cisco enclosed

 #!/usr/bin/perl V0.1 10-31-12
 #Script created by Jason Begley KY9J
 #This script is used for converting the encap.txt file from the AMPR net
 #into a loadable config file for use on cisco routers. It is advised to use
 #this on a 2600 or better router due to interface limits.

 my ($line);
 my %nets = ();
 my $net = undef;
 my $mask = undef;

 #Below are user defined varibles

 my $outip = ""; #YOUR PUBLIC IP ADDRESS
 my $loopip = ""; #YOUR AMPR IP ADDRESS
 #EO user defined varibles

 my $file = $ARGV[0];
 my $debug = $ARGV[1];
 if(!$file) { usage(); exit; } 
 if($file =~ /--help/) { usage(); exit; } 

 open (MYFILE, '>cisco-config.txt');
 print MYFILE "!\ninterface $loop\nip address $loopip\n!\n";
 close (MYFILE);
 open(ENCAP, $file);
 @line = <ENCAP>;
 close (ENCAP);
 @line = grep (!/^\s*$/,@line);
 @line = grep (!/^#/,@line);

 foreach $line(@line)
        $n1 = $n2 = $n3 = $n4 = undef;
        @ln = (split(/ +/, $line));
        ($n, $s) = (split(/\//, $ln[2]));
        ($n1, $n2, $n3, $n4) = split(/\./, $n);
        $gw = $ln[4];
        $gw =~ s/\s*$//;
        if      ($n1 == '')  {  $n1='0'};
        if      ($n2 == '')  {  $n2='0'};
        if      ($n3 == '')  {  $n3='0'};
        if      ($n4 == '')  {  $n4='0'};

        if ($s == '1')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '2')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '3')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '4')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '5')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '6')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '7')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '8')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '9')  { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '10') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '11') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '12') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '13') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '14') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '15') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '16') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '17') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '18') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '19') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '20') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '21') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '22') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '23') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '24') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '25') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '26') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '27') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '28') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '29') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '30') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '31') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '32') { $mask=''};
        if ($s == '')   { $mask=''};

  $net = "$n1.$n2.$n3.$n4";
  $ifid = cipdec(1, $net);
  $wmask = do_subtract($mask);
  print "*ip info*\n";
  print "NET:$n\nBITS:$s MASK:$mask-$wmask\nGW:$gw\nIF:$ifid\n\n";
  open (MYFILE, '>>cisco-config.txt');

 if ($debug != NULL) {
  print "LINE:$line";
  print "\n!\n";
  print "interface tunnel $ifid\n";
  print "description Link to $net\n";
  print "ip unnumbered $loop\n";
  print "tunnel source $outip\n";
  print "tunnel destination $gw\n";
  print "tunnel mode ipip\n!\n";

 if ($gw != $outip) {

  print MYFILE "!\n";
  print MYFILE "interface tunnel $ifid\n";
  print MYFILE "description Link to $net\n";
  print MYFILE "ip unnumbered $loop\n";
  print MYFILE "tunnel source $outip\n";
  print MYFILE "tunnel destination $gw\n";
  print MYFILE "ip tcp adjust-mss 1436\n";
  print MYFILE "ip access-group acl_44 in\n!\n";
  print MYFILE "tunnel mode ipip\n!\n";
  print MYFILE "ip route $net $mask tunnel$ifid\n!\n";
  print MYFILE "ip route  $gw Eth0\n";
 print MYFILE "!\nend\n!\n";
 close (MYFILE);

 sub usage
  print << "EOT";
 *** This script is for creating a loadable config (copy tftp run) for cisco routers ***
 *** Please note that this was tested to work on 2651XM or better, expect poor resp- ***
 *** -onse on smaller/slower platforms.                                              ***
 *** Edit this file and change varibles as noted to your values.                     ***
 *** File \"cisco-config.txt\" will be generated in this directory for tftp upload     ***
 *** Run as follows:                                                                 ***
 *** perl encap.txt                                                  ***

 # Sub cipdec
 # USAGE: For converting IP to DEC values and reverse
 # my ($err, $ret) = cipdec(1, $ip);  #1 =from ip to dec, 2 = from dec to ip 
 # if($err != 0) { print "MAIN: ERR ON \"$ret\"\n"; next; }  
 sub cipdec
  my $debug = 0;
  my (@oct, $opt, $var, $err, $ret, $errmsg);
  my ($oct1, $oct2, $oct3, $oct4);
  my ($dec1, $dec2, $dec3);
  $opt = shift(@_); #1 =from ip to dec, 2 = from dec to ip
  $var = shift(@_); # IP or a DEC 
  $err = 0;
  $ret = 0;
  if($debug == 1) 
    print "SUB TEST: OPT=\"$opt\"\n";
    print "SUB TEST: VAR=\"$var\"\n";
  if($opt == 1) #1 =from ip to dec
    my $ip = $var;

    if(!($ip) || ($ip eq "") || !($ip =~ /\./))
      if($debug == 1) { print "NO . in IP.. Next\n"; }
      $err = 1;
      $ret = "ERR: IP WITH NO \".\"";
      return($err, $ret);
    @oct = split(/\./, $ip);
    my $numoct = @oct;
    if($numoct != 4)
      if($debug == 1) { print "--INVALID IP: \"$ip\"\n"; }
      $err = 1;
      $ret = "ERR: OCT CT \"$ip\"";
      return($err, $ret);
    foreach my $val (@oct)
      if(!(defined $val) || ($val eq "") || ($val =~ /\D/) || ($val > 255) || ($val < 0))
        if($debug == 1) { print "--INVALID IP: \"$ip\"\n"; }
        $err = 1;
        $ret = "ERR: OCT SIZE \"$ip:$val\"";
        return($err, $ret);
        } # EO IF oct container
    $ret += ($oct[0] * (256**3)); #Convert 1st octet to decimal and add
    $ret += ($oct[1] * (256**2)); #Convert 2nd octet to decimal and add
    $ret += $oct[2] * 256; #Convert 3rd octet to decimal and add
    $ret += $oct[3]; #Add the 4th octet to decimal
    if(($ret < 0) || ($ret > 4294967296)) # or = Err
      if($debug == 1) { print "--INVALID IP: \"$ip\"\n"; }
      $err = 1;
      $ret = "ERR: DEC SIZE \"$ip\"";
      return($err, $ret);
      } #EO DEC Size
    return($err, $ret);
    } #EO OPT == 1

  if($opt == 2) #1 = dec to ip
    $oct1 = 0; $oct2 = 0; $oct3 = 0; $oct4 = 0;
    my $dec = $var;
    if($debug == 1) { print "SUB TEST: DEC=\"$dec\"\n"; }
    if(!(defined $dec) || ($dec eq "") || ($dec < 1) || ($dec > 4294967295)) # or = Err
      if($debug == 1) { print "--INVALID DEC: \"$dec\"\n"; }
      $err = 1;
      $ret = "ERR: DEC SIZE \"$dec\"";
      return($err, $ret);
      } #EO DEC Size   
    if($dec >= 256**3)
      $oct1 = ($dec / 256**3);
      my @num = split(/\./, $oct1);
      $oct1 = $num[0];
      if($debug == 1) { print "OCT1: \"$oct1\"\n"; }
      $dec1 = ($oct1 * 256**3);
      $dec = $dec - $dec1;
    if($dec >= 256**2)
      $oct2 = ($dec / 256**2);
      my @num = split(/\./, $oct2);
      $oct2 = $num[0];
      if($debug == 1) { print "OCT2: \"$oct2\"\n"; }
      $dec2 = ($oct2 * 256**2);
      $dec = $dec - $dec2;

    if($dec >= 256)
      $oct3 = ($dec / 256);
      my @num = split(/\./, $oct3);
      $oct3 = $num[0];
      if($debug == 1) { print "OCT3: \"$oct3\"\n"; }
      $dec3 = $oct3 * 256;
      $dec = $dec - $dec3;
    $oct4 = $dec;  
    if($debug == 1) { print "OCT4: \"$oct4\"\n"; }
    $ret = "$oct1.$oct2.$oct3.$oct4";
    return($err, $ret);
    } #EO If $opt == 2  
  $err = 1;
  $ret = "I'm lost and sent to leftovers";  
  return($err, $ret);
 ################### EO SUB CIPDEC#################################

 ### wildcard sub ###
 sub do_subtract(  ) {
  local($ip) = @_;

  # break up the bytes of the incoming IP address
  $_ = $ip;
  ($a, $b, $c, $d) = split(/\./);

  if ($a > 255 || $b > 255 || $c > 255 || $d > 255 || /[^0-9.]/) {
     print "invalid input mask or wildcard\n";
     exit(  );

  $a = 255 - $a;
  $b = 255 - $b;
  $c = 255 - $c;
  $d = 255 - $d;

  return ($a . "." . $b . "." . $c . "." . $d);

 ### EO wildcard sub ### 

Before you run the script make sure to take out the line of your gateway from the encap file

The result of the script is set of commands that look like that

interface tunnel 748306432
description Link to
ip unnumbered Ethernet0
tunnel source
tunnel destination
ip tcp adjust-mss 1436
ip access-group acl_44 in
tunnel mode ipip
ip route tunnel748306432
ip route Ethernet0

This section return on itself (with different IP , destination and route IPs's ) as the amount of lines in the encap file

When the file is ready (after running the perl script) you can copy it with editor and send it to the cisco or by terminal (with the config t command) or by TFTP

The Encap file can be taken automatically from the Portal using the API and you can push the commands to the cisco (after the encap convert to cisco commands after running perl) with TFTP

So with a small software work the whole procedure can be done fully automatic